TYPES OF SOLAR SYSTEM

KINGSOLAR means FIRST or Beginning, The prime Source of Energy for mankind is SUN. Let us use the SUN rays to Power for clean and Sustainable Energy.
The sun delivers its energy in two forms: heat and light. Solar systems can efficiently convert either form into power for practical use.
When many people hear the term “solar system” they think of solar hot water, where the sun is used to heat water for swimming pools or domestic use. This is accomplished by exposing the water to the sun’s heat prior to using it. We also make use of the sun’s heat by orienting windows towards the south (in the northern hemisphere) to take advantage of the sun’s warmth in the winter. This is called “passive” solar. This term is used to describe methods of using the sun’s energy indirectly, such as through bio-mass or heat pumps.
     
  (The photovoltaic (left) powering the radio are an example of an “active” solar power system. The thermal panels (right) heating water are an example of a “passive” solar system.)  
The term solar power system on the other hand, typically describes only those systems that convert sunlight into heat (solar thermal energy) or electricity (photovoltaic). Photovoltaic and solar thermal energy are not in direct competition – quite the contrary: they ideally complement each other and can be combined well. Many specialized companies provide innovative solutions for this purpose.
How Photovolatic Works
solar power becomes increasingly popular, more and more solar panels can be seen on the roofs of homes and businesses alike. These solar panels employ one of the most environmentally friendly methods for producing electricity: “photovoltaic”. The term photovoltaic, or PV, is used to describe something that creates electricity when exposed to sunlight. Solar panels, or PV modules, are made up of several solar cells. Each cell is comprised of materials which have photovoltaic properties.
Photovoltaic technology is actually quite simple:
Electricity can be produced by solar cells whose principal component consists of a semiconductor that is typically made of silicon. A semiconductor consists of a material that cannot be classified as an isolator or a conductor and whose electrical properties can be influenced by adding foreign substances (doping). The solar cells comprise two adjoining semiconductor layers that are equipped with separate metal contacts and have each been doped, thus creating an “n” layer (n = negative) with a surplus of electrons and below that, a “p” layer (p = positive) with an electron deficiency. Due to the difference in concentration, the electrons flow from n into the p area, thus creating an electrical field, or “space charge zone”, inside the semiconductor structure.
 
The Photovoltaic Effect
The upper “n” layer in a solar cell is so thin that the photons from sunlight can penetrate it and can only discharge their energy to an electron once they are in the space charge zone. The electron that is activated in this manner follows the internal electrical field and thus travels outside of the space charge zone and reaches the metal contacts of the “p” layer. When an electrical load is connected, the power circuit is closed: the electrons flow across the electrical load to the solar cell’s rear contact and then back to the space charge zone. This effect is called the “photovoltaic effect” (derived from ‘‘Phos’’, the Greek word for light and the name of the physicist Alessandro Volta). An inverter, the “heart” of the system, converts the direct current (DC) produced by the solar cells into alternating current (AC).
From the Cells to the Module The sun radiates approximately 1000W per square meter, so a 10 x 10 cm solar cell is exposed to nearly 10 watts of radiated power. Depending on the quality of the cell, it can produce an electrical output of 1 - 1.5 watts. To increase the output, several cells are combined and connected to a PV module. The connection of several PV modules is also referred to as a PV array. You can learn more about photovoltaic using the menu bar on the upper right-hand side.
Photovoltaic Arrays
  In the southern hemisphere, the Sun is generally in the northern half of the sky. PV arrays face north to so that they can collect the sunlight. Solar panels can either be fitted to the northern side of a building, such as a house or may be mounted on a free standing structure at ground level, or above ground level. Tilting the array also increases sunlight shining on array. A great way to illustrate this is to use spaghetti to simulate the sunlight and a cup or bangle to illustrate the collecting surface. Where there is a right angle between the cup opening and the spaghetti, the greatest amount of spaghetti will end up in the cup. Where there is less than a right angle, say a 45 degree angle, less spaghetti is able to get in the cup.
(Positioning the array at a 90 degree angle maximizes the amount of sunlight that falls on the array. )  
   
Comparison of different array angles throughout the year in India.
Arrays which lie flat collect slightly more sunlight in summer, but far less energy in winter (blue line). Arrays are mounted such that they are titled with respect to the horizon. This is because they collect a far more even amount of sunlight throughout the year (black and green lines). They are typically mounted on angles similar to your latitude.
 
 
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